I've read many times how to flash a Samsung official rom from Windows using Samsung's official tools and some other times I've read complex ways to do it using the Heimdall's grafical interface, ... but I never felt any of this ways was for me.
Fortunately I always flash custom ROMs instead, so I never had the need to flash a stock one, till recently, when I wanted to test andOTP on old Android versions, that's when I wanted to install the ancient stock versions of a couple of Samsung phones, and luckily I came to a quick commandline script that did it all for me.
WARNING: this procedure will wipe out all your data on the device in a way that you won't be able to recover it, I'm not resposable for any data loss or any damage to the device that any of the things I describe here may cause to the devices.
First of all you must unpack the stock rom (typically a zip file that inside has a whatever.tar.md5 file which is really a tar file, not a md5 one, so, you untar the tar.md5 file and you get the images of the phone's partitions (recovery.img, modem.bin, boot.img, ...) you can now remove that .tar.md5 file.
So... if you have clear that you are going to delete all your data on the phone and want to continue, I assume you have made a good backup of your data and you have verified that the backup is ok, or that you don't mind loosing it all. In any way...
You must start by wiping your data partition from your recovery or from the system itself by doing a factory reset and then going directly do the bootloader. The easiest way is by selecting reset to bootloader on the recovery after wiping data, or rebooting pressing the bootloader key convination for your device, but making sure that you didn't boot into the system after doing the wiping.
If you are sure you have formated data and booted directly to bootloader, you may need to confirm on bootloader that you want to "Continue" to flash your rom, that way you'll get to the "Downloading..." droid.
Now that we are on the bootloader on download mode we do:
and after we have downloaded the pit file:
And you are done. The script will flash all the partitions that are included on the stock rom and after that it will reboot for the system to do its job after flashing, so... it will be a first time boot that will take a while, but that's it.
Just some side notes, using --no-reboot and then --resume has never really worked for me, maybe it was a problem with heimdall's version or my devices or whatever, in those cases the second heimdall command will fail, you must reboot to booloader again (without going to system, otherwise you'll have to format data again) and execute the flash command again without the --resume.